Rule of the One: Avicenna,Bahmanyār, and al-Rāzī on the Argument from the Mubāḥathāt – Davlat Dadikhuda


“Avicenna is a strong proponent of what some of the later ones call qāʻidat al-wāḥid or ‘rule of the one’(RO). The gist of RO states: from the one only one directly proceeds. In the secondary literature, discussion of this Avicennian rule is usually limited to a particular application of it i.e., the issue of emanation. As result, it’s not really clear what RO means, nor why Avicenna endorsed it. In this paper, I try and remedy this situation by doing two things – one on the taṣawwur front, the other on the tasdīq. First, explain just what the terms of RO amount to – that is, its subject and predicate. In doing this, I distinguish between a narrow and a broad understanding of RO, and the show that, on the Avicennian view, the scope of RO is broad; it is meant to be a general principle of efficient causality. This is why it is appealed to in various contexts to establish substantial philosophical theses. Second, I consider an argument Avicenna offers for RO in the Mubāḥathāt. In unpacking it, I uncover some of its realist presuppositions, and then further clarify it in light of a critique first raised by Bahmanyār and then later made famous by Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī. I then conclude by seeing whether the Avicennian has the resources within the initial premises of the argument to meet the objection that’s raised”

Rule Of The One

Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī – Philosophy


Rumi’s teachings, whether in the Maṯnawi or his other works, focus on “the roots of the roots of the roots of the religion” (o ṣul o ṣul o ṣul al-din, Ma ṯ nawi I intro.). By “the religion” he means the Islamic tradition, not religion generically; he is saying that his works go to the heart and soul of the Quranic message and do not get mired down in the limitations of theological formalism or juridical nitpicking. He sees himself as belonging to the line of prophets (anbiā) and saints(awliā), whose God-given function is to provide guidance (hed ā yat ) to the human race. He has a good deal to say about most Islamic teachings, as can be verified by the traditional commentaries on the Maṯnawi or modern studies like that of Jall-al-Din Homa(1900-1980). Despite the extent to which he has been singled out in modern times as a unique exponent of love, much of what he says about love is fairly standard in Sufi works


The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy


“Only rarely does a publication such as this offer scholars the opportunity to explain what they hope to accomplish, and why they are motivated to do it. In this jubilee edition, our department of religious studies has invited each of us to ask the question: why? For my own part, the answer begins with the simple fact of the existence of such a department in this school. The educational tradition of the Ecole pratique des hautes etudes itself, with its yearly invitation to new intellectual adventures, based on the Chair’s own recent research, was what launched me on a career of Oriental studies. This in turn led me to guide others towards research into unexplored areas of religion and”

Problem And Method In Religious History (Corbin)

Avicenna on Theology


“The year 1951 is being celebrated throughout the Muslim world, and especially in Persia, as the millennary according to lunar reckoning of the birth of Avicenna, one of the greatest and most original thinkers produced by Islam, Dom in 370 (980) at the little village of Afshana in the province of Bukhara-a region now hopelessly lost within the territories of the Soviet empire -Abu ‘Ali al-Husain ibn ,Abd Allah called Ibn Sina (to give him his Muslim name) largely by virtue of his own exceptional genius and diligent self-instruction became a master alike of the ancient Greek learning and the Arab sciences, and was the author of large works on medicine and philosophy which, translated into Latin, continued to be studied in the medieval universities of Europe to the end of the sixteenth century. Concerning Avicenna genealogy we know virtually nothing. His father ‘Abd Allah, a native of Balkh, was appointed governor of an outlying district of Bukhara by the Samanid ruler Nuh ibn Mansur, and was therefore presumably a man of some”

Ibn Sina, Avicenna On Theology (trans. Arberry)

Avicenna – Jon McGinnis


“Ex nihilo nihilo fit: Nothing comes from nothing, and Avicenna and his philosophy are no exception. Indeed, multiple influences were at work in the formation of his thought. In this chapter, I consider a few of these influ- ences so as to provide a general backdrop against which to situate the intel- lectual and political-historical milieu within which Avicenna worked.1 To this end, I begin the odyssey that was Avicenna’s life with a brief look at the Greek scientific and philosophical course curriculum being taught at the Academies in Athens and Alexandria, which in turn became the standard regimen of study for those practitioners of falsafa, that is, the Arabic philo-“

McGinnis, Avicenna

The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy – Taylor and Lopez-Farjeat


“This valuable reference work synthesizes and elucidates traditional themes and issues in Islamic philosophy as well as prominent topics emerging from the last 20 years of scholarship. Written for a wide readership of students and scholars, The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy is unique in including coverage of both perennial philosophical issues in an Islamic context and also distinct concerns that emerge from Islamic religious thought. This work constitutes a substantial affirmation that Islamic philosophy is an integral part of the Western philosophical tradition”

Taylor And Lopez-Farjeat (eds.), The Routledge Companion To Islamic Philosophy

Al-Kindi, On the Device for Dispelling Sorrows


Although less technical philosophically than many of al-Kind¯‡’s known treatises, this Epistle remains basic for understandin g the spirit that underlies his thinking. Socratic, yet very Kindian in spirit, this Epistle displays its author’s tendency to harmonize Greek philosoph y and Islam, particularl y as this relates to ethics, and his belief in man’s free will and reason. To him, sorrows may be caused either by our own actions or by the actions of others. It is up to us to choose to do or not to do what saddens us. Through reason we can eliminate some of the causes of sorrow when we perceive the intellectual world, and derive from it things desired. Though this Epistle has a signiŽcant share of the linguisti c and stylistic complexities characteristi c of al-Kind¯‡’s writing, it is hoped that the present translation will facilitate its comprehension.

Al-Kindi, On The Device For Dispelling Sorrows

Knowledge in Later Islamic Philosophy: Mullā Sadrā on Existence, Intellect, and Intuition – Ibrahim Kalin


Ibrahim Kalin’s Knowledge in Later Islamic Philosophy is an investigation into the epis- temology of the famous Safavid philosopher Mullā Sadrā Shīrāzī (d. 1640). Such a study is an event in itself, owing to the fact that although there are some twenty books on various aspects of Sadrā’s thought in European languages, this wide- ranging dimension of his philosophy has not received the attention it rightly deserves. Kalin approaches Sadrā’s theory of knowledge through a detailed analysis of his treat- ment of a particular issue in the history of philosophy, namely the problem dealing

Review Of Kalin, Knowledge In Later Islamic Philosophy (IS 45.3, 2012)

An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia 4


The series “An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia” is a massive multi-volume project that seeks to give coverage to Persia’s rich philosophical heritage, from its pre-Islamic past down to the end of the nineteenth century CE. Etymologically, the word “anthology” refers to a “gathering” or “selection” of flowers. The Persian sensibility to flora notwithstanding, it therefore makes perfect sense that the editors – both eminent scholars of Islamic philosophy – would choose such a format, which allows for the broadest possible presentation of a diverse range of materials. Indeed, when the fifth and final volume is published, the full series will present over

Review Of Nasr And Aminrazavi (eds.), An Anthology Of Philosophy In Persia 4 (ICMR 25.2, 2014)

Devil’s Advocate: ʿAyn al-Quḍāt’s Defence of Iblis in Context – Mohammed Rustom


The writings of ʿAyn al-Quḍāt Hamadānī (d. 525/1131) anticipate some of the major trends that characterize the post-Avicennan ḥikmat tradition. But modern scholarship has as of yet not completely come to grips with the far-reaching implications of ʿAyn al-Quḍāt’s teachings, many of which are framed in terms of the symbolic language and imagery of the Persian Sufi school of passionate love (madhhab-i ʿishq) and the defence of the devil’s monotheism (tawḥīd-i Iblīs). The focus in this article will be upon this lat- ter aspect of ʿAyn al-Quḍāt’s Sufi doctrine. Upon closer inspection, his “Satanology” (for lack of a better term) turns out to not only be concerned with a defence of the devil as a tragic, fallen lover of God; it is also intimately related to our author’s robust theodicy, as well as his theory of human freedom and constraint. At the same time, ʿAyn al-Quḍāt’s defence of Iblis demonstrates his understanding of philosophical and theological discourse as themselves symbolic representations of another, higher form of being and knowing.

Devil's Advocate (SI 115.1, 2020)

Review of Kaukua, Self-Awareness in Islamic Philosophy – Mohammed Rustom

Review Of Kaukua, Self-Awareness In Islamic Philosophy (JAOS 138.1, 2018)