Sayyid Haydar Amuli’s Seal of Absolute walaya: A Shi’i Response to Ibn ‘Arabi – Mohammed Rustom


The work of one of the most important figures of philosophical Sufism, Sayyid Haydar Āmulī (d. ca. 787/1385), has largely been neglected in modern Western scholarship. In Iran, however, the situation is quite different as a steady stream of Persian monographs dedicated to Āmulī’s life and thought have been appearing over the past twenty years.In Arabic, we have a handful of studies, the most noteworthy being the 800-page tomeby Khanjar H  ̣amiyya.4Yet these works on Āmulī vary significantly in accuracy, scope, and depth. This explains why there are still so many key aspects of  Āmulī’s thoughtabout which we have only a cursory knowledge, such as his role as a philosophical/mysticalqur’anicexegete.5Anothertopicofenduring(because unresolved)investigation that is particularly worthy of our consideration is Āmulī’s engagement with Ibn ʿArabī (d. 638/1240)