In An EssAy on MAn, the eighteenth-century British poet Alexander Pope offers a suc- cinct formulation of an age-old philosophical doctrine about reality. This doctrine, which Arthur Lovejoy refers to as the “great chain of being,” maintains that existence is hierarchi- cal and organically linked, structured as it is upon the descending degrees of being. Reality begins with and proceeds from God, the Supreme Being, and ends in the most miniscule and discrete kinds of beings. Each thing in the cosmos, including the cosmos itself, forms a vital link with the other parts of this great chain. In Pope’s words,………………..
Amongst the most formidable opponents of the metaphysics of Mulla
Sadra (d, 1045 AH/1636 or 1050 AH/1640) during the Safavid period was
his student and son-in-law ‘Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji (d. 1071 AH/1661-2).’
Unlike Muhsin Fayd Kashani (d, 1091 AH/1680),’ Sadras other son-in
law and student, Lahiji’s writings were primarily within the tradition
of post-Avicennian Islamic philosophical theology. This is best
evidenced in his critique of Sadras principal and innovative doctrine
of substantial motion (al-/iarakah al-jawhariyyah). One of Fayd and
Lahiji’s disciples, the major Safavid philosopher and mystic Qa<;li Sa’id……………..
To understand the content of Aḥmad al-Ghazālī’s writings and sermons, one must also examine their form. In his attempts to transport his
audience to the truth of which he is certain and to actualize the realization of it within them, Aḥmad al-Ghazālī is ever aware of the limitations inherent to words……………..
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (SHN): The meaning of “tradition” as used by traditionalists such as myself does not mean custom or transmitted habit, but principles of a divine order and their applications to various domains. I can quote for you from one of my own writings:……….
One can hardly avoid the conclusion that as long as religion was central to human life,
there was no ecological crisis even if there were minor degradations of the natural envi
t is well‑known that Rumi (d. 1273) was a great lover of the Prophet
Muhammad. This is best typified in such verses as the ones with which
the present article begins. Given our knowledge of the devotion to the
Prophet that we find in Rumi’s writings and in the works of many other
I would here like to discuss the views of another major
devotee of the Prophet. His name was Abu’l Ma‘ali ‘Abd Allah al‑Miyanji,
and is most commonly known as ‘Ayn al‑Qudat Hamadani. He was born……..
The Male and Female in the Islamic Perspective
by Seyyed Hossein Nasr
“O Mankind! Lo! We have created you male and female… The noblest among you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct.” (Quran 49:13)