The Problem of Evil – by M. Ali Lakhani


The problem of evil challenges the conception of a deity that combines
the attributes of Omnipotence and Goodness: either attribute alone
is compatible with the existence of evil, but the combination of the
two is not. And yet it is precisely this combination of attributes that is
claimed by the monotheistic God of the Abrahamic religions, giving rise
thereby to the problem of theodicy—the conundrum of evil………….

Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān’s Parable of the Two Generous Men in Avicenna’s Decree and Determination (R. fī l-Qaḍāʾ wa-l-qadar)

This article explores Avicenna’s conception of divine providence in the light of his allegorical
work Decree and Determination (R. fī l-Qaḍāʾ wa-l-qadar), wherein the philosopher
stages interactions between the rational soul, the animal soul, and the Active
Intelligence. Centering on the parable of the two generous men told in Decree and
Determination by the legendary sage Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān, this analysis draws parallels from
numerous works of Avicenna—notably his other allegorical work, Alive, Son of Awake
(R. Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān)—so as to bring into focus lesser-known facets of his philosophical
(link below)

Chess and the Divine Decree ( Translation by Hamza Yusuf)

It would be honor enough for the people of India had they bequeathed us nothing
but chess, a game that, like the sun itself, has traversed the entire globe.
Indeed, people everywhere hold high in esteem and deem intelligent anyone
who masters it or even plays it well. Such being the case, in how much greater esteem
should we hold the brilliance of its ingenious inventor?……….
(Link below)

The Qur’an and its Interpretive Tradition. By Andrew Rippin.

The Qur’an and its Interpretive Tradition. By Andrew Rippin. (Variorum
Collected Studies Series). Pp. 356. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2001. £62.50.
Each volume of the Variorum Collected Studies Series musters long term writings by
some noteworthy scholar (in this case, one of the biggest names in Qur’anic studies
in the West); by grouping articles on sundry fields, perhaps written over decades, it
allows a clear glimpse of the scholar’s development, their deeper presuppositions, the
methodological patterns and mental habits which undergird their work. Rippin’s cor­
pus is avowedly built on groundwork laid by John Wansbrough. Two whole chapters
(II and IV) of the book at hand are indeed given over to aspects of Wansbrough’s
work. The tell-tale framework of haggadic, halakhic, massoretic, rhetorical and alle­
gorical genres/phases in the elaboration of the Muslim scriptures is assumed through­
out the book, which brims with references to Quranic Studies and praise for its late………

(Link below)

The In-Between: Reflections on the Soul in the Teachings of Ibn ‘Arabi

(Link below)


‘God Surrounds all Things’: An Islamic Perspective on the Environment

In attempting to understand the Islamic view of the envi­ronment, we have to begin by asking how Islam has tra­ditionally discussed the concept with which we are dealing. How does one say “environment” in the language of the Koran?………………………

(link below)


Seyyed Hossein Nasr – Three Muslim Sages

THE “golden age, of Islam, insofar as the intensity of the religious and spiritual life and the realization of its ideals are concerned, must be identified with the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad- upon whom be peace- and the first Muslim community at Medina. But just as the seed sown in the ground grows into a tree and finally bears fruit only after the passage of time and. the gaining of nourishment from a………………

(link below)

Seyyed Hossein Nasr-Three Muslim Sages_ Avicenna-Suhrawardi-Ibn Arabi-Caravan Books (1976)


Seyyed Hossein Nasr is among the most important spokesmen of traditional thought and stated that approximation to the creative will, that he placed at the center, in the contemplative life fed by religious sources is the most important factor in guiding human beings to the straight path………………………


Universal Science:An Introduction to Islamic Metaphysics

Philosophy is the foundation of all sciences. It is the universal science
(ʿilm-i kullī). Without philosophy no other science can be established
(banā kard)…Philosophy is the ontology of any reality (ḥaqīqat). For ex-
ample, the reality (ḥaqīqat) of man. If you put philosophy to one side, you
have put man aside. Because man is a rational and perceiving animal…
the perceiver of ‘reality’. Āyatullāh Mahdī Ḥāʾirī Yazdī (d. 1420 ah/1999)1………………..

Hairi Yazdi, Universal Science, An Introduction To Islamic Metaphysics (trans. Cooper)